SDG 13: Climate action
Take urgent action against climate change and its effects
Luke produces research data to help society and natural resource related industries adapt to climate change while tackling it in various ways. Luke produces annual information on climate change. Such information includes, for example, emissions and removals from the agricultural sector and LULUCF sector (land use, land use change and forestry sector) reported to the Finnish greenhouse gas inventory.
In this chapter, we present ways to prepare for climate change, through pest research and policy measures for pest control. We also cover, research related to water pollution caused by the forestry sector, in which an interactive operating model was created to improve the condition of a valuable recreational environment in cooperation with local actors. Combating climate change is addressed in the examples of peatland research and greenhouse gas accounting.
13.1. Adaptation to climate-related risks and natural disasters
Forestry sectors impact to water will increase as the climate changes
Nature-based solutions can provide benefits in a changing climate. The OPERANDUM project (2018–2022) aims to understand how, for example, wetlands or vegetation control can reduce the effects of extreme weather events on water bodies.
In a changing climate, the risks are diverse, and their research is interdisciplinary. Solutions are therefore co-created through a dialogue between local knowledge communities and research data. An interactive approach can increase the acceptability of solutions, share learning, and continue to inspire cooperation in environmental development activities.
Through detailed measurement and modeling, the collaboration has provided an understanding of the impact of weather conditions on water quality and the ecological and economic significance of nature-based solutions.
Policy recommendations for the reform of the Deforestation Act
Global warming is bringing new pests to agriculture and forestry. Many insects and fungi benefit from warm summers, extended growing seasons, and milder winters. The phenomenon makes our current pests a more serious problem and brings us new pests.
One of the goals of the Deforestation Act is to prevent the most serious damage from occurring in our commercial forests. In 2021, Luke participated in the reform of the Forest Deforestation Act by providing policy recommendations.
13.2 Climate change measures
Carbon-neutral Finland 2035 uses emissions calculations from Luke's land use and agricultural sector
EU legislation and the underlying United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) require Member States to regularly produce scenarios for both ex-ante and ex-post monitoring of the effectiveness of climate and energy policy measures.
In the HIISI project (2021–2022), Luke's compiled calculations of greenhouse gas emissions and removals in scenarios for the agricultural and land use sectors (LULUCF). These calculations became part of an overall assessment of the development of Finland's net greenhouse gas emissions, which illustrates the development costs needed to achieve Finland's 2035 carbon neutral target.
Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and removals calculated by Luke provide the basis for a wide range of climate and energy policy preparations, such as the new Climate and Energy Strategy, the Climate Change Plan for the Land Use Sector and the second Medium-term Climate Change Policy Plan. They are also needed to assess how Finland will be able to achieve the EU Commission's climate policy goals.
Curbing climate emissions from peatlands promotes carbon neutrality in agriculture
Cultivated peat soils account for more than half of agricultural emissions, although they account for only 10% of the agricultural land. Reducing climate emissions from drained peatlands is therefore key to combating climate change in terms of agricultural emissions.
The rewetting of drained, low-yielding peatlands is the solution to many environmental problems: curbing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing carbon sequestration, removing nitrogen from ecosystems and restoring diversity.
Luke's PRINCESS project (2021–2024) examines how peatland rewetting should be targeted, as well as land use options and the effects of rewetting.
Luke is participating through several projects in the Hiilestä kiinni (Carbon Capture) programme of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. It aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use and strengthen carbon sinks and stocks. During 2021, Luke researched measures to mitigate the environmental impact of peatlands, implemented climate-resilient cultivation practices, such as paludiculture, and assessed the economic and cost impacts of various measures.