Phosphorus (P) is essential for all living organisms and global reserves are finite and expected to last for not more than another 50-100 years. Agriculture is the largest contributor to non-point P losses to the Baltic Sea. P-recycling from secondary raw materials is compulsory to conserve this resource. Actually, millions of tons of P are dissipated when wastes of urban origin are co-incinerated with domestic waste and dumped, or when manure is applied at excessive rates in the vicinity of big livestock enterprises. P-rich waste materials may contain significant amounts of organic contaminants, heavy metals and pathogens. Only mono-incineration together with successive processing will ensure a full recovery of P in a safe fertilizer product. Globally, recycling of P is indispensable for closing anthropogenic and agricultural P cycles. The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) could be a shining example for cutting-edge solutions to protect marine water bodies through implementing advanced processing technology combined with truly environmentally sound agricultural practices. PROMS will convey backbone data on potentially hazardous contaminants in organic and recycled P fertilizer materials, will assess environmentally sound strategies for P fertilization that fully acknowledge food safety, security and hygiene, will establish agro-technological transfer regions and thus will pave the way for a fundamental adoption of current fertilizer practices in the BSR.