Agriculture, Climate, Economy, Environment, Fish, Food, Forestry

Synthesis on bioeconomy monitoring systems in the EU Member States – indicators for monitoring the progress of bioeconomy

This report presents an overview of existing bioeconomy strategies, policies or related initiatives and indicators to monitor and assess these at EU MS level, and the importance of existing bioeconomy sectors at national level. Furthermore, it presents the existing or needed most suitable bioeconomy key indicators and related indicators, and their respective data availability, for assessing and monitoring the progress of a bioeconomy at national level. The identified most suitable bioeconomy indicators important and feasible at the national context, can contribute to the further discussions when setting the frame for the development of a common EU bioeconomy monitoring system.

Agriculture

Genetic diversity and genomic signatures of selection among cattle breeds from Siberia, eastern and northern Europe

Domestication in the near eastern region had a major impact on the gene pool of humpless taurine cattle (Bos taurus). As a result of subsequent natural and artificial selection, hundreds of different breeds have evolved, displaying a broad range of phenotypic traits.Valinta karttaa luotu tämä tutkimus osoittaa, että natiivi nautaroduista ja niiden geneettisten varojen edustaa ainutlaatuista materiaalia tulevia jalostukseen.

Agriculture, Environment

Whole-genome sequencing of native sheep provides insights into rapid adaptations to extreme environments

Global climate change has a significant effect on extreme environments and a profound influence on species survival. However, little is known of the genome-wide pattern of livestock adaptations to extreme environments over a short time frame following domestication. Sheep (Ovis aries) have become well adapted to a diverse range of agroecological zones, including certain extreme environments, during their post-domestication migration and differentiation.

Agriculture, Environment

Manure nutrient content in the Baltic Sea countries

All Baltic Sea countries have their own methods for determining manure data, i.e. manure nutrient content and also its other characteristics and quantity. As this data is a prerequisite for all manure use and manure-related regulation and it affects the emission reduction targets set, it is important to understand the differences between manure data provision between the countries. Moreover, to share the burden of emission reduction in manure use as equally as possible between the Baltic Sea countries, a more harmonised system might be called for. In order to develop such a system, the state-of-the-art in the countries now (August 2016) is required as the stepping stone towards jointly agreed methodologies and tools for determining manure quality and quantity.

Agriculture

Effects of barley intake and allocation regime on performance of growing dairy bulls offered highly digestible grass silage

The objective of this experiment was to examine effects of barley intake and allocation regime on performance of growing dairy bulls offered highly digestible grass silage, with digestible organic matter of 703 g/kg dry matter (DM).Although good quality grass silage as a sole feed could support moderate to high levels of performance of growing cattle, including barley to the diet further improved the performance of animals. The present study demonstrated the ability of growing bulls to adapt to different feeding regimes without major effects on performance. This gives flexibility into choosing feeding strategies based on feed availability and prices resulting in potential benefits in the economy of beef production.

Agriculture

Local breeds – rural heritage or new market opportunities? Colliding views on the conservation and sustainable use of landraces

In this research, Finnish actors engaged in the conservation and sustainable use of local breeds on different levels and sectors were interviewed to find out how breeds are valued by different stakeholders and what kinds of policies and practices are preferred in their conservation and sustainable use; and which also gives rise to some ethical concerns.

Agriculture

Predicting farrowing of sows housed in crates and pens using accelerometers and CUSUM charts

Piglet mortality is a continuing problem in modern pig production. It is high especially during the first few days after birth and can be reduced by supervision of farrowing.There is currently a trend to move towards housing without crates due to animal welfare concerns. Thus, automatic systems that can predict farrowing equally well in different housing systems would have wider applicability than ones developed for crated systems only. A method that works with same parameters in different housing systems would be easier to maintain and reuse in different conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a new accelerometer based system to measure sow activity before farrowing. This data was then used to build a model to predict the approach of farrowing, based on increased activity, within 24 h before the start of farrowing.

Agriculture

Farm characteristics and perceptions regarding costs contribute to the adoption of biosecurity in Finnish pig and cattle farms

The goal of this study was to estimate how the perceived costs of biosecurity measures and the characteristics of the farm and the producer influence the adoption of four biosecurity measures: (1) the use of protective clothing when entering an animal shelter and (2) the use of protective shoes when entering an animal shelter, (3) the verification of the health status of animals coming to the farm, and (4) the use of a carcass container to temporarily store dead animals at the farm.

Agriculture

Innovative use of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media

The utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash has been extensively studied, for example, in the unbound layers of roads and the products of cement and concrete industry. On the other hand, less attention has been given to other innovative utilisation possibilities, such as using the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media of plants. These findings suggest that the utilisation of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media is possible and, thus, may allow more widespread and innovative use of this waste-derived material.